Footnote 1:

Kurama-dera (鞍馬寺) is a temple that was originally connected with the Tendai school of esoteric buddhism and that is situated in the mountains approximately 12km north of the old capital Kyoto. According to tradition, in the 12th century the Taoist monk Kiichi Hôgan (鬼一法眼) placed a collection of texts in this temple that covered topics like military strategy, tactics and espionage. Together with (esoteric buddhist and taoist) knowledge on magical charms, divination and incantations, he transmitted these to eight monks of the temple, supposedly giving rise to the Kyô no hachi ryû (the eight schools of the Capital).

Minamoto no Yoshitsune was banned to Kurama-dera and spent his younger years here (back then known under the name

Ushiwakamaru). He may have owed his success as military commander to the knowledge that he gained in this temple.

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Niômon gate of Kurama-dera
Kurama-dera hall Honden Kondô

Above: Ushiwakamaru during sword training with the tengu, in the forests of Kurama-dera. The tengu king Sôjôbô is watching. According to some sources, these tengu were in reality vassals of Yoshitsune’s father Minamoto no Yoritomo, who were preparing him for his future role in the defeat the Taira.

Below: Training in historical perspective: Keiko with Yoshida Eirei shihan at the Kiichi Hôgan shrine, on the grounds of Kurama-dera.